The following points are based on a presentation by MacKenzie Smith at the CERN workshop on Innovations in Scholarly Communications in April of 2007.
Systems component failure - server, network, software, 3rd party services, or entire data center
Media faults (e.g. CD-ROM bit rot)
Software and data format obsolescence
Human error - deletion
Policy changes with bad trigger effects
Network intrusion and attacks
Copyright restrictions - accidentally violating law by preservation activities
DRM - encryption prevents preservation, reduplication, and migration
Organization failures - an institution or department can go out of business or eliminate positions or change mission.
Replication - multiple copies in multiple places (LOCKSS; use OAI)
Migration - of hardware, storage media, collections
Transparency - open source software, [meta]data (may need to be able to fix something)
Diversity - use multiple formats (Word, ODF, PDF and ASCII)
Auditing - checksum checking, file reads (detect and fix errors in data)
Detect errors in the data and automatically restore it from secondary storage.
Monitor / interact with the designated community to understand requirements and changes
Monitor the emerging technology and standards
Develop and recommend preservation strategies
Develop packaging designs and detailed migration plans and prototypes
Implement administrative policies and directives.
Scan objects according to accepted best practices.
Store objects in a central location.
Create minimal metadata in a database that includes image and text filenames.
Print copies of your digital images onto archival quality photographic paper
Use Xena (xeni.sourceforge.net/) to convert your documents into a format that will be readable in the future.
Make regular backups, ideally onto a removable hard disk drive.
Update file formats when you upgrade the software that created them.
Content must be curriculum or research related
Content must be of long-term interest
Content must have been created by the Hamilton community
Content must be copyright-free
Text documents may be submitted in their original formats (even if proprietary), such as Microsoft Word, but should also be submitted in PDF (150 dpi) and/or TIFF format (300 dpi).
Images should be submitted in these formats (order of preference)
The principles behind the file formats recommended for long-term retention (i.e., more than 5 years) of digital objects for in the custody of the Hamilton College Library are these:
The current list of allowed long-term retention formats for all archival material in the Hamilton College Digital Collections Repository:
Text and mixed:
(Reviewed: September 27, 2010)