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Digitization Resources

Table of Contents

Digitization Websites

Lyrasis Digital

Articles - Imaging and Digitization (Electronic Media Group)


Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative (FADGI
See especially: Technical Guidelines for Digitizing Cultural Heritage Materials: Creation of Raster Image Master Files (U.S. Federal Agencies, Still Image Working Group), August 2010 (accessed February 15, 2011)

JISC Digital Media
<> (accessed September 20, 2008)

Universal Photographic Digital Image Guidelines (UPDIG)
<> (accessed September 20, 2008)

Digitization (General)

Advice for Managing digital images, Technical Advisory Service for Images (TASI)
<> (accessed May 12, 2008)

  • Project Home
  • Managing Digitization Projects
  • Creating Digital Images
  • Delivering Digital Images
  • Finding and Using Digital Images
  • Vector and Animated Graphics

The Art & Science of Digital Imaging (EPI Centre) (accessed May 12, 2008)

Creating Digital Resource/ for the Visual Arts: Standards and Good Practice (vads/TASi) (accessed May 12, 2008)
Comprehensive presentation of digitization, preservation, and workflow issues.


An introduction to Digital Imaging, Sound, Video, and Web Design, 2007 (University of Maryland)
< (accessed May 12, 2008)

Best Practices for Digital Collections at University of Maryland Libraries, ed. by Susan Schreibman, Second Edition Draft Released 4 May 2007 (University of Maryland)
In addition to covering topics such as project lifecycle management and technical specifications for still images and text, this new edition covers audio and moving image formats, Web authoring guidelines, user centered design as well as a local interpretation of the "digital master" concept.
< (accessed May 12, 2008) (American Society of Media Photographers)
A guide for best practices in every aspect of digital imaging technology. Has special focus on workflow. (accessed November 17, 2009)

Direct Digital Capture of Cultural Heritage - Benchmarking American Museum Practices and Defining Future Needs: Final Report - 2005, by Roy S. Berns and Franziska S. Frey (Rochester Institute of Technology)
<"> (accessed November 23, 2009)

Digitisation of Heritage Materials (National Library of Australia) (accessed September 20, 2008)

Guidelines for Digitization (North Carolina Echo) (accessed May 12, 2008)

Digitization Standards for Images, May 2004 (Smithsonian Institution Archives) (accessed May 12, 2008)

A Few Scanning Tips, by Wayne Fulton (accesses May 12, 2008)

Guides to Quality in Visual Resource Imaging, by Linda Serenson Colet, Donald D'Amato, Franziska Frey, and Don Williams, July 2000 (Digital Library Foundation and Research Library Group) (accessed December 14, 2010)

  • Planning an Imaging Project
  • Selecting a Scanner
  • Imaging Systems: the Range of Factors Affecting Image Quality
  • Measuring Quality of Digital Masters
  • File Formats for Digital Masters

An Introduction to Digital Imaging, Sound, Video, and Web Design, Humanities computing summer Institute, June 2005 (accessed May 12, 2008)

Video Codec Definitions ( (accessed June 26, 2008)

Introduction to Imaging, by Howard Besser Los Angeles: The Getty Information Institute. Revised Edition, 2003 (accessed May 12, 2008)

Moving Theory into Practice: Digital Imaging Tutorial (Cornell) (HTML, accessed May 12, 2008), 2003, ) accessed May 12, 2008)

Moving Theory into Practice: Digital Imaging for Libraries and Archives, by Anne R. Kenney, and Oya Y. Rieger. Mountain View, CA: Research Libraries Group, 2000 (accessed May 12, 2008)

The NINCH Guide to Good Practice in the Digital Representation and Management of Cultural Heritage Materials (accessed May 12, 2008)

"A Framework of Guidance for Building Good Digital Collections, 3rd edition, December 2007 (NISO) (accessed May 12, 2008)

Quality Assurance Handbook: Part 3: Quality Assurance for Digitisation, April 20, 2006 (UKOLN) (accessed May 12, 2008) (accessed May 12, 2008)

Still Images (Library of Congress) (accessed May 12, 2008)

Sustainability of Digital Formats (Library of Congress) (accessed May 12, 2008)

Digitizing Text

Benchmarks for masters of page images and machine-readable text (DLF, December 2002)
<> (accessed June 26, 2008)

Technical Guidelines for Digitizing Archival Materials for Electronic Access: Creation of Production Master Files - Raster Images, June 2004 (NARA) (accessed May 12, 2008)

Textual [images] (Library of Congress) (accessed May 12, 2008)

Digitization Project Management

Capture your Collection (CHIN/AMOL)
<> (accessed May 12, 2008)
"This online course will guide you through the process of digitizing your collection; from planning and budgeting through to implementing your digital project. The course is freely available to those working in the Australian cultural sector." (Fundamentals, Costs, Legal Issues, Standards, Planning, Getting started, Managing images)

Digital Projects Guide (Office for Information Technology, Harvard University)
<> (accessed August 20, 2008)

Picture Queensland Image Digitisation Manual 2007
<> (accessed December 14, 2010)

See also "Digitisation Resources" - <>

Other Lists of Resources

Digital Imaging, Resources (Stanford University) (accessed May 12, 2008)

Digitization Resources (CARLI)
<> (accessed June 23, 2008)

File Formats

Digital Archive Information (Florida Digital Archive) (accessed May 12, 2008)

AHDS Repository Policies and Procedures (Arts and Humanities Data Service) (accessed May 12, 2008)

TIFF Revision 6.0, Final -- June 3, 1992 (Adobe)
<> (accessed May 12, 2008)

Adobe Photoshop TIFF Technical Notes, March 22, 2002
<> (accessed May 12, 2008)

Specific Digitization Project Guidelines

California Digital Library (CDL)
CDL Guidelines for Digital Images, ver 2.0, April 2008 Reviewed and Updated Annually ( (accessed May 12, 2008)
See "Local History Digital Resources Project Handbook (online version) - <> (accessed December 15, 2010)

Florida Digital Archive
<> (accessed May 12, 2008)

Harvard University Library
Library digital Initiative (accessed May 12, 2008)

Library of Congress (LC)
"Library of Congress Technical Standards for Digital Conversion of Text and Graphic Materials," December 2006 (accessed May 12, 2008)

Oregon State University Libraries
Digital Image Formats and Standards (accessed May 12, 2008)

Research Library Group (RLG)
Preparing Digital Surrogates for RLG Cultural Materials (accessed May 12, 2008)

Digitization Tools and Utilities

Megapixel Calculator (Peter Forret) (accessed May 12, 2008)


Downloads - Real World Color Management
http://www.colorremedies.dom/realworldcolor/downloads.html (accessed May 12, 2008)


Scanning 35mm Slides - Guideline to Produce Digital Masters (Harvard University), May 31, 2005 (accessed May 12, 2008)

Photo Editing and Color Management

An Introduction to Curves, by Matt Hagadorn (Nature Photographers Online Magazine) (accessed May 12, 2008)


A Primer on Image Histograms and Curves: Taking Voodoo and Black Magic out of Creating Quality Scans, by D. Kosaka (Marginal Software) (accessed May 12, 2008)


Real World Color Management, by Bruce Fraser, Chris Murphy/and Fred Bunting (accessed May 12, 2008)


Short Courses, by Dennis Curtin (accessed February 18, 2011)
Books and courses on digital cameras and digital photography. (accessed May 18, 2007)

Technical Metadata for Digital Objects

Data Dictionary - Technical Metadata for Digital Still Images, December 2006 (NISO Z39.87-200X) (accessed May 12, 2008)

Image Metadata Tools

Exif Reader: Image Data File Analysis (Ryuuji Yoshimoto) (accessed November 12, 2009)
Exif Reader allows you to view the EXIF information contained in pictures taken with digital cameras. In addition to the standard EXIF JPG format, it also support several additional formats, including AdobeResource, TIFF/EP, CRW (Canon), NEF (Nikon) and many others. The program does not offer many image viewing options, other than a thumbnail display, however it provides detailed EXIF data, that can also be exported to CSV file.


Metadata Extraction Tool (National Library of New Zealand) (accessed May 12, 2008)


PHP Exif Functions (accessed May 12, 2008)

Scanning/Imaging Books

"Main Camera Operation" from the "Digital Image Studio Manual" of the Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library (Yale University) (accessed November 30, 2009)

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(Reviewed: September 27, 2011)